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Smoke dampers are passive fire protection products used in air conditioning and ventilation ductwork or installed in physical smoke barriers (e.g., walls). This may be done to prevent the spread of smoke from the space of fire origin to other spaces in the same building. A combination of fans and dampers can exhaust smoke from an area while pressurizing the smoke-free areas around the affected area (inhibiting smoke infiltration into additional areas). These can also be used to maintain the required concentration of a fire suppression clean agent in a space, as installed in supply air ducts to restrict the introduction of air into the space, and as installed in return or exhaust air ducts to restrict the depletion of the clean agent from the space. Smoke dampers are usually installed by sheet metal contractors.
Smoke dampers can be activated by the fire alarm system, usually initiated by smoke detectors, or interlocked with a fire suppression system. Smoke dampers close by an electric or pneumatic actuator, or a spring actuator, and can be either manually reset or driven open on a reset signal to the electric or pneumatic actuator.
Combination fire smoke dampers are also available if a smoke barrier is desired at the same location as a fire barrier.
According to Underwriter's Laboratory, "smoke dampers certified by UL carry a leakage class rating that indicates the level of air leakage measured through the damper under test conditions.
Fire dampers and smoke dampers are an integral and essential part of a building's passive fire protection system.
Fire dampers are passive fire protection products used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ducts to prevent the spread of fire inside the ductwork through fire-resistance rated walls and floors. Fire smoke dampers are similar to fire dampers in fire resistance rating, and also prevent the spread of smoke inside the ducts. When a rise in temperature occurs, the fire damper closes, usually activated by a thermal element which melts at temperatures higher than ambient but low enough to indicate the presence of a fire, allowing springs to close the damper blades. Fire dampers can also close following receipt of an electrical signal from a fire alarm system utilising detectors remote from the damper, indicating the sensing of heat or smoke in the building occupied spaces or in the HVAC duct system.
FIRE AND SMOKE DAMPERS